Tim Holsgrove


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A Comparison of Multi-Axis Test Systems
The complexity of loading in the spine in all six degrees of freedom, and the challenges in replicating such loads during in-vitro tests means that it is often difficult to compare different studies. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop a standard testing protocol to compare different spine systems, which was implemented on multi-axis test systems at the University of Pennsylvania, USA, the University of Bath, UK, and Flinders University, AUS.

A synthetic lumbar spinal specimen was developed based on the criterion of ISO 12189:2008, and a pure moment testing protocol developed to measure the stiffness, phase and R squared value at the geometric centre of the specimen. It is hoped that the results from this study will provide a means of ensuring equivalence of different multi-axis test systems, which will provide an increased ability to compare different in-vitro spine studies.

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